by M. Scott Peck,M.D.
・24/June: 22.20[改訳：footnote in the middle & paras.10-12]
Whenever the roles of individuals within a group become specialized, it becomes both possible and easy for the individual to pass the moral buck to some other part of the group.
In this way, not only does the individual forsake his conscience but the conscience of the group as a whole can become so ｆragmented and diluted as to be nonexistent.
We will see this fragmentation again and again, one way or another, in the discussion that follows.
The plain fact of the matter is that any group will remain inevitably potentially conscienceless and evil until such time as each and every individual holds himself or herself directly responsible for the behavior of the whole group - the organism - of which he or she is a part.
We have not yet begun to arrive at that point.
Bearing in mind the psychological immaturity of groups, we shall be examining aspects of both the MyLai crimes: the atrocities themselves and their cover-up.
The two crimes are quite interwoven.
Although the cover-up may seem less atricious than the atrocities, they are part of the same ball of wax.
How is it that so many individuals could have participated in such a monstrous evil without any of them being so conscience-stricken as to be compelled to confess?
The cover-up was a gigantic group lie.
Lying is simultaneously one of the symptoms and one of the causes of evil, one of the blossoms and one of the roots.
It is why this book is entitles People of the Lie.
Until now we have been considering individual people of the lie.
Now we will also be considering a whole people.
Certainly, by virtue of their extraordinarily common - that is, communal - participation in the cover-up, the men of Task Force Barker were a "people of the lie."
By the time we are finished we may even conclude that the American people, at least during those war years, were also a people of the lie.
As with any lie, the primary motive of the cover-up was fear.
The individuals who had commited the crimes - who had pulled the triggers or given the orders - obviously had reason to fear reporting what they had done.
Court-martial waited them.
But what of the much larger number who only witnessed the atrocities yet also said nothing of that "something rather dark and bloody"
What did they have to fear?
犯罪を犯した人は、－引き金を引いたものか、その指示を出した者 － は、言うまでもなく報告を恐れる訳がある。
ところが、それよりもっと大勢からなる目撃者が、誰一人あの｢dark and bloody」な出来事について、一切口にする者がいなかった。
Anyone who thinks for a while about the nature of group pressure will realize that before a member of Task Force Barker to report the crime outside of that group would require great courage.
Whoever did so would be labeled a "squealer" or " stool pigeon."
There is no more dreadful label that can be applied to a person than that.
Stool pigeon often get murdered.
At the very least they are ostracized.
To the ordinary American civilian, ostracism may not seem such a horrible fate.
"So, if you get kicked out of one group, you can just join another," may be the reaction.
But remember that a murder of the military is not free to just join another group.
He can't leave the military at all until his enlistment is up.
Desertion itself is an enormous crime.
So he is stuck in the military and, indeed, in his particular military group, except at the discretion of the authorities.
Beyond this the military does other things quite deliberately to intensify the power of group pressure within its ranks.
From the standpoint of group dynamics and from military group dynamics in particular, it is not bizarre that the members of Task Force Barker failed to report the group's crimes.
Nor is it surprising that the man who finally did report the crimes was neither a member of the Task Force group nor even a member of the military at the time he did the reporting.
誰しもグループからの圧力というものがどんなものかを考えれば、Task Force Barker員が自分達の犯罪を外部に報告するのにどんなに大きな勇気が必要だったかは、容易に理解できる。
グループのダイナミック、ことに、軍事的な集団内のグループダイナミックの見地からは、バーカーTask Force員 があの集団犯罪を報告できなかったことはさほど奇異なことではない。
Yet I suspect there is another exremely significant reason that the crimes of MyLai went unreported for so long.
Not having spoken with the individuals involved, I offer it purely as conjecture.
But I did speak with many, many soldiers who were in VIetnam during those years, and I am deeply familiar with the attitudes prevailing in the military at that time.
My profoud suspicion, therefore, is that to a considerable extent the members of Task Force Barker did not confess their crimes simply because they were not aware that they had committed them.
They knew, of course, what they had done, but whether they appreciated the meaning and nature of what they had done is another matter entirely.
I suspect that many of them did not even consider what they had done a crime.
They did not confess because they did not realize they had anything to confess.
Some undoubtedly hid their guilt.
But others, I suspect, had no guilt to hide.
How can this be?
How can a sane man commit murder and not know he has murdered?
How a person who is not basically evil may participate in monstrous evil without the awareness of what he has done?
It is this question that will serve as a focal point for the discussion that follows on the relationship between individual and group evil.
In attempting to answer this question, I will proveed in the consideration of evil up the ladder from the level of the individual to the level of the small group (Task Force Barker) to the levels of ever larger groups.
. . . (omitted 5 pages) . . .
. . . (omitted 5 lines) . . .
Probably the most powerful of these group cohesive forces is narcissism.
In its simplest and most benign form, this is manifested in group pride.
As the members feel proud of their group, so the group feels proud of itself.
Once again, the military deliberately does more than most organizations to foster pride within its groups.
It does so through a variety of means, such as developing group insignia - unit standard flags, shoulder patches, even special uniform deviations such as the green berets - and encouraging group competition, ranging from intramural sports to the comparison of unit body counts.
そこでは、例えば、軍の紋章、各部隊の旗、袖章、さらにはgreen beretsとしての特注ユニフォーム － 基地内スポーツなどによる対グループの競争を鼓舞するなど、あらゆる方法を駆使している。
It is no accident that the common term for group pride is a military one: esprit de corps.
A less benign but priactically universal from of group narcissism is what might be called "enemy creation," or hatred of the "out-group."*
The group become cliques.
Those who do not belong to the group (the club of clique) are despised as being inferior or evil or both.
If a group does not already have an enemy, it will most likely create one in short order.
Task Force Barker, of course, had a predesignated enemy: the Viet Cong.
But the Viet Cong were largely indigenous to the South Vietnamese people, from whom they were often impossible to distinguish.
Almost inevitably the special enemy was generalized to include all Vietnamese, so that the average American soldier did not just hate the Viet Cong, he hated "Gooks" in general.
* Psychologists have observed that when similar groups of twelve-year-old male campers without restraining adult leadership were encouraged to compete with each other, the benign competition soon changed into violent "warfare on a twelve-year-old scale". (Myers, "A Psychology of Evil," p.29).
It is almost common knowledge that the best way to cement group cohesiveness is to ferment the group's hatred of an external enemy. Deficiencies within the group can be easily and painlessly overlooked by focusing attention on the deficiencies or "sins" of the out-group. Thus the Germans under Hitler could ignore their domestic problems by scapegoating the Jews. And when American troops were failing to fight effectively in New Guinea in World War II, the command improved their esprit de corps by showing them movies of Japanese committing atrocious acts. But this use of narcissism - whether unconscious or deliberate - is potentially evil. We have extensively examined the ways in which evil idividuals will flee self-examination and guilt by blaming and attempting to destroy whatever or whoever highlights their deficiencies. Now we see that the same malignant narcissism behavior comes naturally to groups.
グループ自体の団結を硬くするためには、グループ外部に敵を養成するというのはほぼ常識的に知られていることである。 グループ外の者の欠点や罪悪に意識を向けていれば、自分のグループ内の欠陥から容易に苦しむことなく目をそらすことができる。 そのようにして、ヒトラー政権下のドイツは、ユダヤ人をスケープゴートにして足元の問題を無視してきた。 また、アメリカが第二次大戦中ニューギニアで上手く戦えなかった際に、集合的自尊心を肥やす為に日本軍の悪質な戦闘の映画を見せる事によって、集合的自尊心を鼓舞していた。 しかしこの手の自己愛は、たとえ無意識であっても、または恣意的であっても、本質的に悪である。 これまでに私達は、悪である個人が、どの様に、他の人間を責め、また、自己の欠陥に気づかせようとするものは誰であっても何があっても破壊することによって、自分自身の罪悪感と内省から逃れてきているかを詳細に見てきた。
From this it should be obvious that the failing group is the one likely to behave most evilly. Failure wounds our pride, and it is the wounded aniimal who is vicious. In the healthy organism failure will be a stimulus to self-examination and criticism. But since the evil individual cannot tolerate self-criticism, it is in time of failure that he or she will inevitably lash out one way or another. And so it is with groups. Group failure and the stimulation of group self-criticism act to damage group pride and cohesiveness. Group leaders in all places and ages have therefore routinely bolstered group cohesiveness in times of failure by whipping the group's hatred for foreigners or the "enemy."
Returning to the specific subject of our examination, we will remember that at the time of MyLai the operation of Task Force Barker had been a failure.
After more tham a month in the field the enemy had still not been engaged.
Yet the Americans had slowly and regularly sustained casualties.
The enemy body count, however, was zero.
Failing in its mission - which was to kill in the first place - the group leadership was all the more hungry for blood.
Given the circumstances, the hunger had become indiscriminate, and the troops would mindlessly satisfy it.
It has been suggested that a successfully withholding source might be tricked into compliance if led to believe that he is dealing with the opposition. The success of the ruse depends upon a successful imitation of the opposition. A case officer previously unknown to the source and skilled in the appropriate language talks with the source under such circumstances that the latter is convinced that he is dealing with the opposition. The source is debriefed on what he has told the Americans and what he has not told them. The trick is likelier to succeed if the interrogatee has not been in confinement but a staged “escape,” engineered by a stool-pigeon, might achieve the same end. Usually the trick is so complicated and risky that its employment is not recommended.
-Alice in Wonderland
The aim of the Alice in Wonderland or confusion technique is to confound the expectations and conditioned reactions of the interrogatee. He is accustomed to a world that makes some sense, at least to him: a world of continuity and logic, a predictable world. He clings to this world to reinforce his identity and powers of resistance.
The confusion technique is designed not only to obliterate the familiar but to replace it with the weird. Although this method can be employed by a single interrogator, it is better adapted to use by two or three. When the subject enters the room, the first interrogator asks a doubletalk question one which seems straightforward but is essentially nonsensical. Whether the interrogatee tries to answer or not, the second interrogator follows up (interrupting any attempted response) with a wholly unrelated and equally illogical query. Sometimes two or more questions are asked simultaneously. Pitch, tone, and volume of the interrogators’ voices are unrelated to the import of the questions. No pattern of questions and answers is permitted to develop, nor do the questions themselves relate logically to each other. In this strange atmosphere the subject finds that the pattern of speech and thought which he has learned to consider normal have been replaced by an eerie meaninglessness. The interrogatee may start laughing or refuse to take the situation seriously. But as the process continues, day after day if necessary, the subject begins to try to make sense of the situation, which becomes mentally intolerable. Now he is likely to make significant admissions, or even to pour out his story, just to stop the flow of babble which assails him. This technique may be especially effective with the orderly, obstinate type.
Pyramid Books,New York.
Farrar, Straus and Cudahy edition published May 1956
Fifth Printing, February 1968.
【日本語訳 will probably follow some days later!!】
...... (omitted 3 paras.) .......
... Their strategy almost invariably has a major and a lesser objetive. This dualism is one of their tactics. Then, if the big objective fails or is long delayed, they hope to achieve the other. .......
The long-range objective of brainwashing is to win converts who can be depended on to react as desired at any time anywhere. This is the inside-out meaning they give the word voluntary and is why they condemn free will with such ferocity, for its existence is basically inconsistent with communism.
Even when he stands by himself, the truly indoctrinated communist must be part of the collectivity. He must be incapable of hearing opposing ideas and facts, no matter how convincing or how forcibly they bombard his senses. A trustworthy communist must react in an automatic manner without any force being applied. Only then is he the "new Soviet man" that Lenin foresaw. The only real guarantee for this, he believed, was to grab a baby from its cradle and then to keep it all its life from the slightest contact with outside ideas or places, so a subversive word can never enter its ego. This is patently impossible so long as a tiny isle exists anywhere outside the Red orbit. That is wny the iron curtain is vital to a totalitarian state.
So long as this iron curtain is impenetrable, actual conversion to communism is not always necessary. So long as the individual does what the Party wants, it is usually sufficient. The achievement of this submission is the immediate short-range ojective of brainwashing. The man does not have to be a true believer so long as he is convinced that he has no alternative to following Red instructions. Hope - the prospect of any alternative in life, no matter how slim - must be wiped out of his mind entirely before communism can feel safe with him.
Communism, as practiced in real life - and brainwashing apply proves this - has nothing whatsoever to do with the word as defined by the dictionary. The Party's own name is one of its most strikng examples of double-talk. Communism is a sheer power system, gang rule with modern appliances. So long as the individual submits unquestioningly, he is what is referred to as a "disciplined Party member."
Brainwash is a very intricate manipulation, more like a treatment than a formula. Each of the two processes that make it up is itself composed of a number of different elements. They are found in every case of brainwashing, although the proportions differ according to the patient's resistance and the purpose for which the Red's are treating him, and range from a very mild and disarmingly subtle application to crude force polished over with Marxist lingo. These can be easily catalogued.
They are hunger, fatigue, tenseness, threats, violence, and in more intense cases where the Reds hav specialists available on their brainwashing panels, drugs and hypnosism. They are applied in two broad ways, one by what is called "learning" and the other through the confession phenomenon. "Learning" and confession are inseparable from brainwashing. Everyone has to participate in them, whether a party member or not. Learning in this sense means only political teaching from the communist standpoint. Confession is an integral part of the rites. In China there are no exceptions from it for anyone, any more than for attendance at "learning" classes. Everyone within reach of Party cadres, security police, and soldiers has to attend, even if a hermit in a cave. The retention of his own individuality by a single person is recognized as a deadly menace by the whole monolitic structure.
. . . . . . (omitted 1 para.) . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . Brainwashing is a combination of this fake evangelism and quack psychology in a setting of false science.
The entire mechanism of brainwashing, so as to condition the patient and to indoctrinate him, particularly to accomplish the latter, is geared to putting his mind into a fog. That is the purpose of all the sly and harrowing pressure used. If it were not for the need to deeply confuse the man, there would be no necessity to deprive him of a balanced diet, of a recuperative sleep, of a mind free from horrible fears. Brainwashing is a system of befogging the brain so a person can be seduced into acceptance of what otherwise would be abhorent to him. In brainwashing, a fog settles over the patient's mind until he loses touch with reality. Facts and fancy whirl round and change places, like a phantasmagoria. . . . . .
The concealment and subterfuge are intended to distract attention from the glaring fact that brainwashing is something new which is contrary to human nature and inseparable from communism. Brainwashing is no more just indoctrination than a pumpkin pie is any longer a pumpkin; something more has been added and a fundamental change made by a cooking process. That is exactly what happens in brainwashing to innocent factors such as persuasion and discussion. They are chopped up and parboiled. Neither is brainwashing just atrocities nor even a revival of the Inquisition. The Inquisition had no Pavlov and was not thought up in a physician's laboratory. Science was not enlisted to put it across.
Each of the elements that goes into brainwashing and the methods used in their application requires detailed explanation before the system can be properly understood.
. . . . . . (omitted 3 paras.) . . . . . . .
The usual Red tactic then is to leave the prisoner alone. The Russian communists usually do it for a few weeks or some months, allowing the tenseness to draw tight, like a noose, before they begin their questioning or give him any idea what it is all about. The Chinese are more patient. They leave the prisoner this way for many months, even a year or two, without providing a clue as to why he is being held.
The agonized victim tortures himself thinking up every possible blunder he might have made, even by omission, every possible act of his that might be considered a crime under far-fetched communist law and its all-embracing theory of responsibility. Whom did he know; whom had he met? So, without a word being said, long before his first formal interrogation, each man desperately probes his mind and soul for personal guilt. Soon he stops figuring about whether he will confess that will satisfy the authorities and be the guilt they seek so he can escape from bondage. The self-criticism that every man has to write, in or out of prison, enable him to feel out the authorities on this. When officials express approval of his self-criticism, the confession they want will have been indicated in it. The game is like seacrching for a concealed toy and being told you're hot, cold, warm . . .warmer . . until you locate it. Until the officials say his self-criticism is getting warm, he is told that he is not being frank and to to do it all over again. If he doesn't remember each detail exactly, and contradicts himself on any point, he will have bailed his own trap. He is given ample time to build up his own case against himself, to be his own prosecutor and to convict himsef.
When he asks what he's done wrong, he's only told, "You know what you've done; you know your own misdeeds - confess!" What guilt? No man is perfect. Any normal human being can conjure up many possible transgressions which he may have committed, unwittingly perhaps.
Everyone has heard of false accusations made against others, built up out of nothing, interpreted out of double-talk. These add to the man's worries. "Are they trying to frame me?"
Meanwhile, continually dinned into his ears is the refrain, "Mao Tse-tung is merciful to those who confess." Confess to what? A man cannot be freed until he confesses. This, too, is part of the ritual. . .
メキシコ湾から、硫化水素(Hydrogen Sulphade)、ベンジン(Benzine)、塩化メチル(Methylene Chloride)がいっぱい吹き出しているようだ :
"Tortured for His Faith"
An Epic of Christian Courage
Heroism in Our Day
BULGARIA BECOMES "LITTLE RUSSIA"
We had heard of our fellow-Christians in Russia and what they had suffered, but little did we know that Bulgaria would become so like Russia it would be - and still is called "Little Russia."
....... (omitted) .......
BETTER SPIES THAN CHRISTIAN MARTYRS
The first sign that our time had come was a whispering campaign to slander the country's leading pastors. Despite this campaign, revival spread and new churches formed so the government devised a more subtle procedure. Gradually the pastors of the churches were taken away and replaced by persons who would be "willing tools" in the hands of the communists. They concentrated on putting their puppets into the pulpits.
Dedicated pastors soon found themselves displaced and could get only menial jobs such as streetsweeping. When puppet pastors had been put into many pulpits, the next target was chosen: the top Bulgarian church leaders from Baptist, Methodist, Congregational and Evangelical denominations. I was one of them.
A vicous slander campaign started. We were accused of being "spies." Better "spies" than Christain martyrs. We were described as "instruments of imperialism." At first when I heard this I laughed, asking Ruth, "Well, how do you like being married to an 'instrument of imperialism?'"
"So that's what you are!" Ruth laughingly replied.
The real truth meant nothing to those who were determined to destroy the Christian Church. We, the fifteen leaders of Bulgaria's Evangelical denominations, were publicly named.
It was obvious that we were not guilty of the charges laid against us, but a smear campaign was started to distort all that we had said and done in order to blacken us.
It was noised about through the press and other media that we had betrayed our country to the English and Americans.
....... (omitted) ....... Paul and Barnabas told the disciples in Asia Minor, "we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God"(Acts 14:22).
The Apostle Peter says the same thing (IPeter1:6-7) "Wherein ye greatly rejoice, though now for a season, if need be, ye are in heaviness through manifold temptations: that the trials of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, might be found unto praise and honour and glory at the appearing of Jesus Chrst."
Man's first natural reaction when lookng at suffering is to think it is too hard to bear. We try to avoid it, but later we find that the suffering becomes of great value and is more precious than gold. Suffering was a fire which our churches had to undergo so that all that was hay and stubble would be burned up, leaving the pure gold shining more brightly than ever. In the process the "structure" of the church would be destroyed or subverted, but there would remain a true, living Church, the Body of Christ, the Underground Church.
This was all just ahead of us.
These were the events that had led me from being an ardent atheist to my position now as a pastor facing torture for Christ in the dreaded "White House."
THE FOURTEENTH DAY
....... (omitted 6 paras.) .......
Shortly afterward, Tsonny was taken from the cell. A year later I met him again in another prison and he told me that Nickolai had gone to the leaders and said that Tsonny was wise to him and suspected him and they ought to remove Tsonny from the cell so he could get on with his job of helping break me.
Nickolai and I were left alone in the cell, and he picked up much information about me, which I, in my innocence, gave him. Later, I became aware of fellow prisoners who were forced to spy on their cellmates through threats of harm to their families. I later realized Nickolai's downcast look when we first met was from shame. But the Secret Police quickly learned a prisoner's most vulnerable points - his children, his wife, for example, and used it without mercy.
Nickolai's job was to find my vulnerable point. He quickly found it. It was, of course, my wife and children. I was worried sick about them. Ruth was all alone, with two babies to feed and care for, and here I was, powerless to help.
....... (omitted 2 paras.) .......
Informers were found not only in places where systematic campaigns were planned (such as the one against me); they were everywhere, in prisons, camps, homes, places of employment, and even in the congregations of churches. To improve their own situation in prisons and to lessen their own suffering, many prisoners made themselves available as informers. The communists cannot sleep calmly if they don't know about everyone - such as who thinks what about them, or who says what about them. Consequently, in all Bulgaria there was hardly a cell, a block, or a place of employment, or a church which didn't have an informer who reported what was said. It is just as bad today.
....... (omitted 3 paras.) .......
But they were smart also. The sheer volume of my writings enabled them to pick out isolated incidents here and there and twist them. Unknown to me, the persons mentioned in my manuscript were thorougly questioned and harassed.
....... (omitted 3 paras.) .......
The authorities were carefully constructing a case against me, being most careful that I not appear as persecuted for my faith in God.
....... (omitted 5 paras.) .......
One after another the leading Christian laymen were called before the DS and sharply told they must renounce their acquaintanceship and fellowship with their former pastors. The newspapers began printing notices from members or leading Christians in the different congregations saying, "I express my disgust for the pastors' activities and renounce my acquaintanceship with them."
As in Elijah's day a remnant refused to bow down to Baal, and so there were those in the congregations who stood by us. There were pastors who did not write renunciations in the papers. However, one by one, these pastors were soon ostracized and forced to leave the ministry. Some were even sent to concentration camps. Others pushed broomes as street sweepers in the very cities in which they had pastored. Many of these faithful, ostracized pastors began "underground" meetings in homes at great risk.
Soon communism came into the Church itself in the form of the "New Pastors" appointed by the DS. Some of the young people and the more active members were sent for at night by the DS. They were beaten viciously during the night in a way which left no marks. In the morning, they were released and forced to promise to tell no one what had happened - not even their wives.
....... (omitted 1.5 para.) .......
Fervent Christians and active members were especially sought after by the DS. Many were not able to hold out, and bowed to the will of the authorities perhaps in order to remain in the congregation. Fear of being reported determined one's conduct. In many cases, one knew who the informer was, but one never dared to say it openly because the DS could reach anyone they wanted. I am reminded of the prediction in the Bible that man will be betrayed by his own relatives.
Many Christians in other countries can never understand how shrewd and wicked are the powers of darkness. This is because they have never sat alone in a prison cell, completely helpless and hopeless. No matter how many books are written about it, only those who have experienced the ways and means that were used can ever comprehend what Satan can devise to torture men.
....... (omitted 4 paras.) .......
The communists knew an outward attack on the churches would unite and strentgthen the believers, as it has done down through Christian history. So they decided to destroy or control it from within. The communists had found him a very willing instrument. It was quite evident that he was a faithful supporter. To this day the communist tactic is to close some churches and install their own men in those that remain open.
THE TRAGIC SUFFERING OF OUR FAMILIES
After the trial, we were returned to the prison, to disappear from public view. But now it was our families as well as ourselves who suffered. Persecution came not only from the enemies of the cross, but also from the newly installed "pastors," including Angel Dinoff. The people were warned that anyone trying to assist the arrested pastors or their destitute families would be sent to a concentration camp.
....... (omitted 3 paras.) .......
The Cultural Society was a circle started by the Secret Police - the DS. In every prison, the DS set out to indoctrinate the prisoners. Actually, the Society was designed to "brainwash" us and to supply the DS with information about all the prisoners. The only thing that concerned them was the attitude of each prisoner toward the regime. The prisoners were also "trained" in the circle. At the end of the training, they were graded either "intractable" or "reformed."
Rev. Mark Fitzpatrick
Armann Reformed Baptist
1 Now it came to pass, when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and Geshem the Arabian,
and the rest of our enemies, heard that I had builded the wall, and that there
was no breach left therein; (though at that time I had not set up upon the
2 That Sanballat and Geshem set unto me, saying, Come, let us meet together
in some one of the villages in the plain of Ono. But they thought to do me
3 And I sent messengers unto them, saying, I am doing a great work, so that
I cannot come down: why should the work cease, whilst I leave it, and some
down to you?
4 Yet they sent unto me four times after this sort; and I answered them after
the same manner.
5 Then sent Sanballat his servant unto me in like manner the fifth time with an
open letter in his hand;
6 Wherein was written, It is reported among the heathen, and Gashmu said it,
that thou and the Jews think to rebel: for which cause thou buildest the wall,
that thou mayest be their king according to these words.
7 And thou hast also appointed prophets to preach of thee at Jesusalem,
saying, There is a king in Judah: and now shall it be reported to the king
according to these words, Come now therefore, and let us take counsel to-
8 Then I sent unto him, saying, There are no such things done as thou sayest,
but thou feignest them out of thine own heart.
9 For they all made us afraid, saying, Their hands shall be weakened from the
work, that it be not done. Now therefore, O God, strengthen my hands.
MP3: Shanballat's Slander
The first and foremost, they'd say, "what are you?", you know, and then
We need to be known more by what we "do" than by some title.
But then, secondly: Always beware of open letters. Always beware of an open
letter. "... like manner the fifth time with an open letter," verse 5, "in his hand;"
This letter was not primarily for Nehemiah, but it was written ultimately for the
eyes and the attention of the king. Sanballat once again shows his true colours.
The application here is obvious; We will not have to wait long for false Christians
to reveal themselves. Within this one verse, we realise the motive of Sanballat
Somebody has said this: "Truth and time go hand-in-hand."
Give them enough time and truth will come out. All we have to do is to
remain faithful to the truth, and they will not be able to contain them-
selves those who are enemies.
But then, the content of the letter is in verses 6 and 7; notice that the thing
we know of the letter is first and foremost and the two verses describe what's
in the letter is nothing but lies. The letter is written in of lies. It's not anything
that reflects the truth. Sanballat again, like Satan, has no rules of combat, no
rules of war. He uses lies to attack Nehemiah. And the enemies will use any a
nd every means to achieve its wicked ends.
In John Chapter 8 verse 44 , the Lord Jesus speaks of the Devil, and says.
"When he speaks a lie, he speaketh of his own."
It is his own language, it is his native tongue, "for he is a liar, and the father,"
-a very strong language here, "and a father of", in other words, "he begets lies."
He is the (pro challenger) of lying; he's the one that gives life to lies.
And here Sanballat attacks Nehemiah not with- and he doesn't care that they
are liars because at the end of the day, Sanballat's goal is not for truth, and the
enemy's goal is not for truth.
And when the Devil attacked the Lord Jesus, he lied. He told him at one point,
that he would give him all the kingdoms of the world, number one they weren't
his to give, and number two, they didn't have the power to give.
So, he couldn't do what he says, but afterwards, it was irrelevant. He's a liar
and the father of it.
Now the lie number one: in the verse, "it is reported among the heathen," there
was no such report. In fact, Nehemiah, in verse 8, says so. "There are no such
thing as thou sayest." So Nehemiah responds and clarified himself. And the
application here is important. We must remind ourselves continually of the attack
of the enemy and the attack of the Devil and the attack of the spiritual wicked-
ness against us will not represent a true picture even when it attacks our con-
science and attacks us morally; it won't be according to truth. There will be an
exaggeration of truth, yes, there will be certain things that the Devil can say,-
Absolutely, and esaggerates-
And I mean the exaggeration of the truth, too, is a lie. And when the enemy c
omes to us, there is no desire to remain truthful. So we must remind ourselves
of that. [End of MP3]
If we want the Devil comes to and says, "You know, Samson, you're no good."
It's not true. There was much good. The number one that's he was good was
that "God has chosen me." It was not what the Lord says, when the Devil
comes to attack Joshua, the high priest, and Zechariah, this is a brand plucked
from the fire. A brand plucked from the flints.
"CULT IN OUR MIDST"
THE CONTINUING FIGHT AGAINST THEIR HIDDEN MENACE
Mergaret Thaler Singer
[ 2003, First Edition 1995
By Margaret Thaler Singer and Janja Lalich.
Published by Jossey-Bass
A Wiley Imprint
989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741
ISBN 0-7879-6741-6 ]
The Threat of Intimidation
... (omot 1st para.) ...
Cults and thought-reform groups tend to seek out the allegiance of many professionals within various fields. To varying degrees those co-opted professionals become information pipelines to the leaders, and they are used to manipulate and exploit members at the leaders' behest. Their prime allegiance is to the cult leader, not their patients. It's shocking to think that your doctor or psychiatrist is babbling your secrets to a cult leader or sharing them with a facilitator, trainer, or guru of some group that uses thought-reform processes.
The use of professionals as pipelines to convey information is generally kept hidden from cult members. Instead, some leaders claim to have superhuman knowledge or special talents and powers for knowing this information; others state that they read minds, know everything, or have infinite wisdom. Eventrually, a member may catch on to how personal secrets become known. Even then, the members' discovery is handled by condemning him or her for having such thoughts and complaints. The member is put down and punished for "doubting." As we've seen in earlier chapters, the system is never wrong, only the member.
Numerous ex-members have reported that psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, and physicians who were cult members often acted in key dual roles: as information gatherers and as the ones who tried to talk people out of complaining or leaving. Not only have I heard such reports from former rank-and-file members but I have also interviewed nearly two dozen professionals who have told me of thier purposeful activities on behalf of their cult leaders. Here are some prime examples.
"Jed" was a licensed mental health professional with a doctoral degree; he was also in a Bible-based cultic group. Other members were encouraged to meet with him for therapy regarding child-rearing problems, marital concerns, and work issues. The cult leader instructed Jed that he had three missions: to report the contents of all his sessions to the leader, to "smooth people out" and convince them to obey the dictates of the leader, and to prevent members from leaving the group.
. . . (ommitted some) . . .
❖ ❖ ❖ ❖
There are many frightening examples of cults' stark and widespread efforts are silencing and intimidating critics. Not only have researchers, journalists, authours, and ordinary citizens been intimidated, attacked, and sued, but cults have also attempted to frighten professionals away from the courts, waging concentrated attacks on professionals who have testified on behalf of ex-members. In the hope of stifling attorney, physicians, psychiatrists and psychologists, social workers, child welfare evaluators, and any others who might aid cult victims in legal suits or child custody cases, certain cults have stooped to vicious ends and terror tactics. In addition, they have filed unfounded and downright ridiculous charges against lawyers with their respective bar associations, against physicians with state medical boards, and against psychologists with their professional organizations.
So far, honesty, dedication, and integrity have usually prevailed, and victims of cult abuse can still find more and more professinals coming to help, in spite of the unending attacks on them.
... (１段落 省略) ...
. . . (中略) . . .
❖ ❖ ❖ ❖
『逆ｶﾙﾁｬｰｼｮｯｸ/Reverse Culture Shock』(=正式名)に重ねられて始まった、
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