カテゴリ: ◇現代・政治・世界

   In recent days I have received a few minor criticizm and innuendoes telling that I use too many "exerpts" and "quotes" and hardly present my own words.
I still am not too willing to fill my blog with "my" words, as it will more likely to divert my initial purpose of setting up this blog of mine, however, I was urged somehow to write my own words a bit more for the time being to calm some of them down.

   I found the following link the most concise and precise & good:
Definition of DEMOCRACY

   In response to active someone's past blog, the following is my attempt to write this summary of "history and definition of Democracy".


   The original word defines DEMOCRACY in Greek as a form of government that is ,"rule〈d〉 by (simple) people" and NOT by a single or a handful of a ruler(s).
   I'm not familiar with the Political science, but the modern (from 17th-18th century) form of Democracy by far appeared (or re-appeared) , "as a reaction to a concentration and abuse of power by the rulers."
In order for that to work, it was necessary that each power-house had to be separated so as to evade (or minimize the consequence of) the chance of conspiracy(!).
   At the time it was formed in Europe in the time of Enlightenment, the separation meant separation of CIVIL RIGHTS/RELIGIOUS LIBERTY & THE STATE.
In modern and present Japanese Democracy, the separation means (and still ought to be) separation of CIVIL/LEGAL& STATE authorities, but "the religious liberty" can be abused and this element can invade and ruin the sacred separtion of the above in gravely destructive ways.

   The original Hellenistic (i.e. Greek & Roman) definition or concept of DEMOCRACY was, as above, "rule by (simple) people",and was a reaction to a government that was ruled "other than" by the people, and according to the author of the above link, there are the following types of 'non-democratic' from of governments.
   Listing these as opposed to Democracy does not necessarily mean that these are "bad" in itself (but more easily inclined to go bad depending on the rulers).
These are:

1, Monarchical,
2, Aristocratic,
3, Oligarchical,
4, Theocratic,
5, Dictatorial Government.*
* -
Definition of DEMOCRACY-

   According to this author, the modern-present Democratic Governments in the world at large, there still are TWO different types of DEMOCRACY, and these are:

a, REPUBLIC, which is apparently the majority of the world's democracy that exist, and this means that the    highest rulers are "elected by the people."
b, CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY, which is the government whose elected rulers still have a King or a Queen (or an Emperor) as the Head of the State.
The countries that are under this Constitutional Monarchy are The United Kingdom/Spain/Belgium/the Netherland/Luxenburg & Scandinavian countries.

   The CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY has been successful in that the constitution guarantees the basic civil and human rights, liberties and the powers as following the Democratic constitution "which is competent to the Monarchy".
   Also the author states that these Kings and Queens stands 'as a STABILIZING factor rather than as a DANGER for the Democratic guarantees.'
The modern Democracy was shaped as opposed to such "threats to basic civil rights/liberties and powers" by the rulers, therefore, the protector of it is rather desirable than unnecessary.
   The actual "threats" that brought this modern and present Democracy were and has been the forms of governments that are "dictatorial and totalitarian" REGIMES.
So the successful Democratic government should guarantee basic civil rights, liberties and powers "from such dictatorial and totalitarian regimes," whether it be Republic or Constitutional Monarchy.

   Such undesirable form of government that is a threat to people is described by this link's author as follows:
" The regime does not tolerate any deviation frorm its ideology.
- Regime opponents are persecuted, tortured, detained in concentration camps,..."
   The "concentration camps" in this quote implies, obviously, the Nazi's concentration camps to the Jewish people in the World War II, but there are far exceeding shapes and forms of detention & concentration camps exist all over the world, be it not necesarily visible or are named as such.  In Soviet, namely, had its own psychiatric institutions for political deviants. These are only the two of the most notorious of the Modern history, but these are never conclusive.

   Lastly, I'd like to include and not choppig off the final quote from the political genius, which this author added as an example of defining DEMOCRACY, and it is by Sir Winston Churchill!
Sir Winston Churchill quoted for Democracy as this:
"No one pretends that democracy is perfect or all-wise. Indeed, it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time."**
   In other words, the democracy is a very bad form of governemnt but there has never been a better form than democracy! and ever since Churchill said this, there still has not been any better form of government than Democracy created to this day!!

** 「誰も民主主義があたかも完全で最も賢い政治形態であるかの様なふりをする者はいない。
[訳:by this blogger.]


編集 / 2010.06.29 / コメント:: 0 / トラックバック:: 0 / PageTop↑




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